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 Post subject: Open-Source FAQ
PostPosted: Fri Aug 05, 2011 8:58 am 
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Goblin
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In IRC, there has recently been talk about what role open-source code could play in our community. I thought it might be useful to address some

What makes something open-source?

In its simplest form, open-source software is that software for which the source material (such as code or assets) may be freely obtained by anybody. This is generally done so without discrimination, and usually done free of charge. Compare this to another strategy of sharing a project's source, in which the recieving party must agree not to share the source code.

What is Free software?

Free software is a more specific category of open-source software that adds in a few requirements that are not implicit in open-source's definition. The main proponent of Free software, the Free Software Foundation, defines Free software as that software which permits the following freedoms of the end user:

  1. The freedom to run the program for any purpose. (even if the author doesn't agree with that purpose)
  2. The freedom to study, and if desired, change the program.
  3. The freedom to redistribute copies of the original program.
  4. The freedom to redistribute copies of a modified version of the program.

This means that Free software attaches ethical consideration to the license. In order to fulfill these ethical needs, Free licenses are "viral", in the sense that the license propogates to derivative works. As an example, the GPL (and related licenses) require that distributors of a package must provide a copy of the license, and also some access to the project's source code. Compare this to a license like the 4-clause BSD license, which only require propogation of the license and attribution. It is therefore legally possible to "close" the source code under such a license, and incoporate such code into a proprietary project.

What are the advantages of an open-source project?

Open-source code carries a number of advantages with it:

  • A greater attachment to your project's community; anybody can download the source and make it work.
  • Reduction of development workload. Anybody can submit patches for bugfixes or new features.
  • If an important developer drops out of the project, it is often simpler to find a willing developer to replace that person.

What are the disadvantages of open-source project?

Unfortunately, like any other licensing scheme, licensing your project under an open-source license does have its drawbacks:

  • Obviously, the source code will be open; if you're not comfortable showing your code off to the world, this is probably not the best option for you to take.
  • It's a bit harder to make money off of, though not impossible; see below.
  • You cede some control over the project to your users; under most licenses, it is entirely legal for a dissatisfied group of users to "fork" the project into a new one, leading to fragmentation. This, however, can also be a strength.
  • Under some licenses, it is possible for a company to effective close your source by using techniques such as signing or DRM. The source remains open, but the ability to of the user to recompile the software and run it on the target platform is compromised. Licenses such as the GPL v3 deal with this issue.

Do I need to forfeit my claim of copyright to create an open-source project?

Not in most jurisdisctions. In fact, many open-source licenses depend on copyright protection to ensure their enforcability. Releasing an open-source project into the public domain would likely invalidate any terms of the license, because in a situation like public domain, the project belongs to the people, who may do whatever they like with it. (provided that it is legal)

If I depend on an open-source project in my project, must my project also be open-source?

Sometimes, but not always. Whether or not it does depends on what license that dependency is using. For instance, a library released under the GPL (without a linking exception) would consider its link targets as derivative works, and those targets must adopt the GPL in order to remain compliant with the license. Some licenses (such as the LGPL) are more relaxed in what they consider derivative work; it is usually safe to link proprietary code against these libraries.

Can I make money off of open-source software?

Yes, and you don't even have to be the project maintainer to do so. However, the business model for an open-source company is a bit different, since users can download and recompile code themselves. Generally, such a business model will offer services such as distribution and support. In the case of distribution, you can package software for the target platform and sell that packaged version for money, so long as you do not violate the software's license in the process. If your software is used by a company, you can also sell them support contracts, which they will want anyway. Several distributors of the GNU/Linux operating system have been able to make a viable business out of this.

For games, it's a bit more difficult, and the support model doesn't work as well. To date, there have not been many successful open source game companies. However, that does not mean that it cannot work. I surmise that any successful model in this arena will require a strong connection between a game's development team and a dedicated user base. Here are a few ideas:

  • Add a little "langiappe". This has been used by a few commercial companies, such as the company formerly known as Origin, to some degree. Origin often packed in trinkets related to the game that they were selling, and usually wrote instruction manuals in character. This was successful enough that Electronic Arts decided to buy Origin, although they failed to follow the same business model and quickly ran the company into the ground.
  • Port an open-source game to a console such as the Wii or the XBox; unfortunately, this method often means signing into non-disclosures, and rewriting the game engine from scratch. It may also introduce ethical concerns.
  • Ask for donations; this will work if people consider your game good enough, although it will probably not provide steady income.

Can I release my source code under two licenses?

Yes; a number of companies, such as TrollTech (now owned by Nokia) and MySQL AB (now owned by Oracle) have done this. This procedure is called dual licensing, and offers companies the chance to utilize the software if they do not agree with the terms of the open source license. However, if you dual-license your code, you must usually make sure that code written by contributors does not end up in the closed-source version of the code without their permission.

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 Post subject: Re: Open-Source FAQ
PostPosted: Mon Aug 29, 2011 7:11 am 
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Larc
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thylordroot wrote:
  1. The freedom to run the program for any purpose. (even if the author doesn't agree with that purpose).


Not with the Tivoization stuff that's been added to the GPLv3 - to lazily paraphrase it states that software that is licensed under the GPLv3 can not be used on machines that lock out derivative works. For instance the Tivo does this with its software.

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 Post subject: Re: Open-Source FAQ
PostPosted: Mon Aug 29, 2011 8:43 pm 
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Ploe wrote:
thylordroot wrote:
  1. The freedom to run the program for any purpose. (even if the author doesn't agree with that purpose).


Not with the Tivoization stuff that's been added to the GPLv3 - to lazily paraphrase it states that software that is licensed under the GPLv3 can not be used on machines that lock out derivative works. For instance the Tivo does this with its software.

and so GPL shoots itself in the foot with its own fanaticism. All the restrictions of GPL seem to (supposedly) benefit the end-user, but they certainly don't benefit the mid-user, the programmer trying to take advantage of some cool GPL software. It really seems they've lost sight of "freedom" in favor of fanaticism :(

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 Post subject: Re: Open-Source FAQ
PostPosted: Thu Sep 01, 2011 6:03 pm 
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Goblin
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Ploe wrote:
thylordroot wrote:

The freedom to run the program for any purpose. (even if the author doesn't agree with that purpose).

Not with the Tivoization stuff that's been added to the GPLv3 - to lazily paraphrase it states that software that is licensed under the GPLv3 can not be used on machines that lock out derivative works. For instance the Tivo does this with its software.


The GPL v3 does not actaully limit what purposes the software can be used for by doing this. Companies like TiVO are still permitted to use such software however they would like, as long as they agree to the conditions of the license. What this is restricting is the reliance of the end user on the vendor to perform installation of the software onto the platform. The relevant material is in Section 3 and Section 6:

GPL v3, Sec. 3 wrote:
No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such measures.

When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures.


GPL v3, Sec. 6 wrote:
...“Installation Information” for a User Product means any methods, procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because modification has been made. ...


Thus, TiVO can still utilize GPL v3 programs for whatever purposes it wishes, and can even sign the binary, but if it does so, it must provide the signing keys so that the user can execute the modified binary in question. If it does not, then it is treated like any other license violation; if TiVO does not agree to the terms provided in the license, then they can negotiate with the copyright holders to obtain a separate license for the work, or they can choose not to use the software.

I personally feel this is a reasonable concession, and feel that it can only help end-users in the end. Nonetheless, the GPL v2 is still no less legally binding than it was before the GPL v3, and it is still an excellent license. If you are bothered by the anti-tivoization clauses in the GPL v3, then the GPL v2 is still a viable license to release your own source code under. In fact, Linus Torvalds has done this, and has even modified the GPL v2 to ensure that a further version of the license is not a suitable replacement for the license currently being used by the Linux Kernel.

Ginto8 wrote:
and so GPL shoots itself in the foot with its own fanaticism. All the restrictions of GPL seem to (supposedly) benefit the end-user, but they certainly don't benefit the mid-user, the programmer trying to take advantage of some cool GPL software. It really seems they've lost sight of "freedom" in favor of fanaticism :(


I'm assuming by the mid-user, you mean a licensee which is selling the work. In some ways, the GPL v3 limits their opportunity, but then again, it always has. One could also responsibility of the the vendor to supply the relevant source code for those that ask for it would similarly restrict the vendor's opportunity. If the vendor cannot abide by either restriction, then it is the vendor's perrogative not to accept the license, in which case, their rights regarding the software are those provided by copyright law in their jurisdiction. In that case, the previously mentioned options are available.

Even with that in mind, I would make the argument that the vendor still gains more from the GPL v3 than with a proprietary license. The vendor still has the right to view the source code and learn from it; if it wanted to write a compatible (but non-derived) work from scratch, it has all the knowledge required to do so, and if it chooses to do so, then it may license that software under whatever terms it sees fit. It may not be convenient to do so, but that option certainly exists, and it saves them from investing a lot of time into reverse-engineering.

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 Post subject: Re: Open-Source FAQ
PostPosted: Tue Sep 06, 2011 5:43 pm 
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Larc
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You've only touched on the GPL so I feel it necessary to mention, if only brief, why when I finally release something I will not be using that license and instead be using the Simplified BSD License. The GPL is great in one thing - guaranteeing that whomever winds up with the program can re-factor it for their purposes. I can see the benefit of this but I can't see why it is called a freedom. Something enforced can never be a freedom, enforced freedom is oppression, no matter what way you slice it. Now as someone who personally believes that software should be free I will release the source, but I won't be imposing my morals on another user of my work. It's not ethical. What if they profit from it? I don't care. What if they restrict other people's freedoms by not releasing the source to derivative work? That's their freedom, and I'd rather any oppression be at somebody else's discretion than mine.

You might not agree but that's the way I see it.

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 Post subject: Re: Open-Source FAQ
PostPosted: Tue Sep 06, 2011 8:03 pm 
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Goblin
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Ploe wrote:
You've only touched on the GPL so I feel it necessary to mention, if only brief, why when I finally release something I will not be using that license and instead be using the Simplified BSD License.


I touched on the GPL because it was the topic being discussed. If a BSD-like license suits you, then I have no problem with that. If you're the author of the code, what license you decide is suitable for that code is your perrogative.

Ploe wrote:
The GPL is great in one thing - guaranteeing that whomever winds up with the program can re-factor it for their purposes. I can see the benefit of this but I can't see why it is called a freedom. Something enforced can never be a freedom, enforced freedom is oppression, no matter what way you slice it.


I'm not exactly sure what you're trying to imply here, largely because I'm not sure what you're saying is an "enforced freedom". If you're saying that the user is somehow forced to modify the code, I cannot see where that is the case. The user has the option to modify the code, but is not legally compelled to. If you mean that you only get that freedom if they obey the license, well sure, it's a restriction. I never said that such a freedom was unconditional. The reason that the above is a freedom is that is sufficient for the user to have that ability by only accepting the license. Under most jurisdictions, copyright by itself does not permit this except in cases of fair use.

Ploe wrote:
Now as someone who personally believes that software should be free I will release the source, but I won't be imposing my morals on another user of my work. It's not ethical.


Is forcing another user to hold your beliefs unethical? Most certainly. If we're taking about the GPL, I fail to see how this applies. Nobody is being forced to hold a particular set of morals, because nobody is being forced to accept the license. If one cannot abide the license, then it is their responsibility to negotiate an alternate license with the copyright holders or to accept the rights granted to the user by copyright law.

While I'm on the subject though, the 2-Clause BSD license is not without restriction. Let's take a look at it:

2-Clause BSD wrote:
Copyright <year> <copyright holder>. All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are
permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of
conditions and the following disclaimer.

2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list
of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
provided with the distribution.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY <COPYRIGHT HOLDER> ''AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL <COPYRIGHT HOLDER> OR
CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON
ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF
ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

The views and conclusions contained in the software and documentation are those of the
authors and should not be interpreted as representing official policies, either expressed
or implied, of <copyright holder>.


Even the 2-Clause BSD has restrictions, however few there are. For instance, the user must agree to indemnify the author of liability for damages, and the user must redistribute the license with the code. Even in a license like this, you are stating that you feel that: a) you believe you should recieve attribution for your work, and b) that you should be protected from legal action if shit hits the fan. Now, there is a way to release the software in such a way that it is free of any restriction whatsoever, which is to declare it as public domain. However, this is often too liberal of terms for most content-producers, because public domain means that the author no longer possesses the copyright, the public does.

Ploe wrote:
What if they profit from it? I don't care.


Of course, I totally agree; If a person can make money with my software, more power to him. This is a non-sequitur if we're talking about the GPL, however, since the GPL explicitly permits somebody to do this as long as they obey the license.

Ploe wrote:
What if they restrict other people's freedoms by not releasing the source to derivative work? That's their freedom, and I'd rather any oppression be at somebody else's discretion than mine.

You might not agree but that's the way I see it.


Again, if these are the terms that you wish to release your source code under, then I have no problem with that. It is not my intent to advocate any license for your project, as I am not a copyright holder and have no business trying to make that decision for you. If you consider the above unethical, then I see no reason why you should release the software via the GPL.

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 Post subject: Re: Open-Source FAQ
PostPosted: Wed Sep 07, 2011 8:04 am 
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Larc
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thylordroot wrote:
I'm not exactly sure what you're trying to imply here, largely because I'm not sure what you're saying is an "enforced freedom". If you're saying that the user is somehow forced to modify the code, I cannot see where that is the case. The user has the option to modify the code, but is not legally compelled to. If you mean that you only get that freedom if they obey the license, well sure, it's a restriction. I never said that such a freedom was unconditional. The reason that the above is a freedom is that is sufficient for the user to have that ability by only accepting the license. Under most jurisdictions, copyright by itself does not permit this except in cases of fair use.


My concept of enforced freedom is a simple one: I wrote a program, I decided to release it with source - that was my prerogative. If someone takes my program, creates a derivative work and then releases it the onus should be on them to make the decision. Thereby I am nice enough to share, but I'm not fussed if them that I share with are as nice as me - forcing them to share back seems a little petulant and shows little to no faith in my fellow man. That's all I meant by enforced freedom.

thylordroot wrote:
Even the 2-Clause BSD has restrictions, however few there are. For instance, the user must agree to indemnify the author of liability for damages, and the user must redistribute the license with the code. Even in a license like this, you are stating that you feel that: a) you believe you should recieve attribution for your work, and b) that you should be protected from legal action if shit hits the fan. Now, there is a way to release the software in such a way that it is free of any restriction whatsoever, which is to declare it as public domain. However, this is often too liberal of terms for most content-producers, because public domain means that the author no longer possesses the copyright, the public does.


Perhaps releasing it in to the Public Domain would indeed be a better idea, I never considered that an option. If I can wash my hands of my work and any responsibility that might be derived from it once it's out there, good! Cheers for the advice. :lol:

edit (a few hours later): Don't be offended if I don't continue to talk about licensing - it makes me feel awfully stupid. All I wanna do is write code - at the end of the day and I want as many people to be able to do what they want with my work. I find it all so mind numbingly confusing. It's all varying degrees and different strokes of fairness and I doubt I'm qualified at all to call the shots on that.

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PostPosted: Wed Jan 03, 2018 2:49 am 
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 Post subject: Re: Open-Source FAQ
PostPosted: Sat May 11, 2019 9:27 pm 
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